SWOT Analysis of Indian Indigenous Milk Products

SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. This analysis has been done for Indian Indigenous milk products so that this sector can emerge as the strongest sector for the Indian food industry.

No special occasion is complete without serving and sharing delicious sweets to our near and dear ones, mostly made with the indigenous dairy products as a base. Since the day when a man gets the idea to utilize milk, there is a prime focus in techniques to extend shelf life or to conserve it for the sake of its rich taste and nutritional goodness.

So, the class of ethnic dairy products has developed over the vast period utilizing locally available techniques and resources. The term given to such type is ‘Indigenous Milk Products’ or ‘Traditional Indian Dairy Products.’

Gulab Jamun


  • Domestic dairy products are of various types. The same product may vary from place to place due to variations in processing techniques and ingredients used. Here, these are classified into the following major categories.
  • Concentrated / partially heat desiccated dairy products
  • Khoa, Kheer, Kheech, Raabdi, Kadhi, Rabri and Basundi
  • Heat as well as coagulated acid products
  • Paneer and Chhana
  • Fermented products
  • Dahi, Misti Dahi, Chakka, Panchamrit, Ooliya, Shrikhand, and Shrikhand wadi
  • Fat rich dairy products
  • Ghee, Makhan, and Malai
  • Frozen products
  • Kulfi, Malai ka barf, and Milk ice
  • Cereal based
  • Kheer, Payasam, Kheech, and Ooliya
  • Confectionery
  • Khoa based
    • Burfis, Gulab jamun, Kala Jamun, Kalakand, Panchamrit, Milk cake, Peda, Pantooa, etc
  • Channa based
    • Rasogolla, Rasomalai, Sandesh, Channa podo, Channa Gaja, Cham cham, Khira Sagra, Kala Jamun, Channa murkho, Pantooa, etc
  • Miscellaneous
    • Milk agar cake and Colostrum pudding.
  • Refreshing beverages
  • Lassi, Chhach and Raabdi.
  • Others
  • Raita and Dahiwada.

It can be seen that some products like Pantooa, Kala Jamun, etc. are recurring as they can be classified in more than two classes. It occurs mainly with sweets which are prepared by khoa and channa both like Pantooa and Kala Jamun or heat desiccated cereal-based dairy products like Cheech and kheer.


Historical Evidence

The most common fact can be observed that Hindus still use ghee (as a cooking medium for foods intended to serve their deities and fuel for a holy lamp or yagyna), panchamrit (a concoction of honey, liquid jaggery, cow milk, curd, and ghee) and prasadam for rituals.

Milk and milk products were an essential part of the Vedic Indians’ diet. In early Buddhist and Jain eras, sweet prepared from thickened milk called Sihakesara and Morandeku were mostly eaten.

Buddha allowed some of his followers to carry dairy products with them if they could not get food quickly. This shows that such dairy products had a good shelf life.

In the Mauryan period, pieces of evidence of condensed milk sweet consumed with honey have been found. In the post-Mauryan period, milk was used in various forms. This shows that earlier people knew the technology of preserving milk.

Sarkara, the dairy product made by reducing the liquid to one eighth is used to make many sweets. This can be seen analogous to what we use condensed and dried milk today.

Utilization Pattern

Nearly half of the milk produced (50-55%) is utilized for domestic dairy products. Fluid milk utilizes 45.7%. Only 5-6% of the total milk produced is converted into western dairy products under the organized sector. The regulated industry processes only about 20% of the full milk produced.

Butter milk-Lassi

SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning used to help build an organisation, sector or even a person stronger by identifying its strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats.

The SWOT analysis not only enlightens the strengths and upcoming opportunities but also brings forth weaknesses and possible threats. SWOT analysis gives an idea to flourish the traditional dairy products industry.


  • Traditional dairy products are liked by most of the Indian population.
  • High demand leads to a higher annual growth rate ( growing more than 20% annually).
  • Low infrastructure and operational costs with high margins of profit.
  • Availability of skilled human resources
  • The utilization of surplus as well as sub-standard milk.


  • Due to the lack of recorded sensory characteristics, microbiological, and chemical profile, standardization is difficult.
  • Lack of packaging systems.
  • Generally, hygienic conditions are not kept by the manufacturers on a small scale (halwais).
  • Lack of production statistics based on real surveys is a significant challenge in policy planning.


As they enjoy mass appeal, there exists a vasts scope for innovation, mechanization, value addition, and product diversification.
Greater access to the global market.


Lack of published literature on their processing technology.
Modern mechanized methods may increase cost and also differ in sensory profile.

Keeping strengths in mind, focusing on opportunities, eliminating weaknesses and reduce threat factors, the indigenous dairy segment can become the strength of the food industry.

Written By,

Manvik Joshi

Student, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology

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Manvik Joshi
I am pursuing a B.Tech. in Dairy Technology from Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology (India). I am having a deep interest in traditional dairy product processing technology and has written a range of papers on this topic. I am also passionate about dairy microbiology, milk chemistry and ice cream technology. I am writing as a freelancer for numerous food titles. Apart from writing articles I like to design graphics.

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